The other answers are good, but they focus on whether pacifiers are good or bad. A baby's cry is an alarm. At that age, it doesn't reflect intent or preference, it's just an indication that something's out of order like an engine fault light in a car.
When your baby takes the pacifier and stops crying it's because the pacifier fixed the problem, when it doesn't then it's because it didn't.
I think there's two things that are frustrating you (and frustrated me a few years ago).
First, if a baby needs sleep, they sure will go to sleep. Some will resist it for ages but it doesn't matter for them. A baby doesn't have to go to work in the morning, they can sleep when they like. The same's not true of the parents, which is very frustrating when the baby won't shut up.
That links to the second thing. A baby's cries are nearly useless for working out what's wrong. I know there's some horse-whisperer, earth-mother types who claim to be able to reliably write a paragraph about what's up based on subtleties of the child's cries. Good for them. But for the rest of us it's a boring sequence of first guess, second guess, third guess, over and again, etc.
I know that you're checking for nappies, and illness, and stuff because you're a sensible adult human being, but often I think it's easy to overlook just things like cuddling, or looking outside, or taking for a walk outside over your shoulder, or a trip in the car around the block. I think it's usually a matter of experimentation. My little one liked Wagner on YouTube (ffs, I'm not so much a fan) and also me standing in the doorway looking out onto the street (not at the same time). [You can guess how many things I tried to soothe a baby to sleep before trying Wagner, ;-)].
Also: it passes. The baby stage doesn't last very long at all.