25

According to the study titled The possible role of human milk nucleotides as sleep inducers published in Nutritional Neuroscience, a link was found between certain levels of nucleotides contained in breast milk over a 24 hour period. The conclusions portion stated the following: Conclusions The assay of nucleotides in the breast-milk of the study population ...


18

I don't know that this question is really answerable, because significant injuries or deaths while in the care of babysitters are very, very rare. There aren't enough to really compare adults to immature babysitters from what I found, and further the age will likely not be recorded in most cases where it is an accident (and nobody is charged criminally). ...


18

To quote from The Future of Play Theory: A Multidisciplinary Inquiry into the Contributions of Brian Sutton-Smith: Findings from studies of war toys are diverse, if sparse. War toys have been found to enhance aggression (Sanson and Di Muccio, 1993; Turner and Goldsmith, 1976; Watson and Peng, 1992) reduce aggression (Bonte and Musgrove, 1943; ...


14

Penny Holland, who lectures in Early Childhood Studies at the University of North London, authored a 2000 study on the effects of a zero tolerance policy for war, weapon, and superhero play. Finding that studies that sought to find a causal connection between war and weapon play and aggression in children and later adulthood were unable to prove such a link (...


14

Not to necro post, but I did find a study which seems to directly answer this question: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8889628 Short answer is that they found no significant impact on nutritional value as long as the final temperature of the milk stayed below 60 C (140F). Considering our target temp is 37C (98.6F) it should be no problem if you are ...


14

One very important consideration for this and all other non-experimental studies: correlation does not imply causation. In other words, just because two things happen together does NOT mean one causes the other. Here's a great video explaining this idea. In the case of whether or not expecting parents marry, there are several reasons the parents who marry ...


12

Few studies have been done on this topic, and mostly the papers written on it have emphasized the destructive consequences of not telling children the whole truth promptly after death. Mostly those studies were done in the 60s and 70s, at a time when it was quite common not to tell children, and the damage done includes distorted mourning processes and ...


12

Official Recommendations The American Academy of Pediatrics publishes policy statements on this topic. The most recent recommendations for the age range in question (school-aged children: 5-18yo) are from Oct 2016. Their recommendations for school-aged children don't included a max recommended number of hours of screen time per day. Instead, they ...


11

Curious if this is country-specific. My 15 year old has been sitting for others for 4 years now. The duration and end times have changed, at 11, we weren't going to let her agree to sitting till midnight, for example, but an early dinner for the parents, home by 9PM or so. Even now, she sits for parents of friends whose daughter is the same age, but not ...


10

Pointing is really the first way kids start to express their wants other than crying, so this is exciting for them. They also sometimes just want to know what something is. I find that the most important thing you can do is to communicate that you understood her. I find it useful to communicate back with words to my 15 months old, such as : Yes, that ...


10

No particular age has been set in stone, but there is some evidence to suggest as early as 18 months of age (Eichstedt et al., 2002; Poulin-Dubois, 1998). However, it is quite possible the answer depends on the child's cognitive, social, language development. In fact quite a bit of literature suggests that at the very least 2 years old's are able to ...


10

There was a study carried out by Professor Joan Durrant, University of Ontario, looking at the Swedish smacking ban called A Generation Without Smacking [PDF], first published in 1999. The key findings: Decline in public support for corporal punishment Decline in smacking/slapping children as a form of punishment No deaths of children as a result of ...


10

My perception is that a child's social adjustment is more complex than just how many siblings they have. For example: there are articles discussing how Only Children are More Successful while you can find evidence to support the contrary. I believe most of these types of articles are anecdotal generalizations in both directions, though. Children are ...


9

The research referred to on the program was a study out of the Universty of Toronto (by Esme Fuller-Thomson and Angela Dalton) published in Psychiatry Research which "examined gender specific differences among a sample of 6,647 adults, of whom 695 had experienced parental divorce before the age of 18." So they were talking to adults about whether they had ...


9

Well, NHS Choices says: Don't use a microwave to heat up or defrost breast milk as it can cause hot spots, which can burn your baby's mouth. The American Academy of Paediatrics says: Do not use microwave ovens to heat bottles, because they do not heat them evenly. Uneven heating can scald your baby or damage the milk. Bottles can also explode if left ...


9

Clearly it's all a matter of degree. An absent father is not good for the child. And there are different kinds of "absent" fathers: Fathers who just disappear, fathers who disappear but support the mother / child financially, fathers who come back regularly or irregularly. Fathers who die. Fathers who are in jail (guilty or innocently), or away for their ...


9

If I were you, I would start with this short statement summarizing the (lack of) evidence and the AAP guidelines for screen exposure during childhood. The references listed at the end will give you more details about the state of knowledge on this topic. Note that there is more research on screen use in general (including computers, movies, and TV) rather ...


9

There are a few important things to keep in mind: Understanding why kids imitate behavior can help you to identify when imitation is more likely to lead to problems down the road. Whether or not children imitate adults depends not just on the adult, but on the child. That means that what worked for you with one kid (or what worked for another parent with ...


9

Babies usually explore the world with their eyes first, then their mouths. Depriving them of this highly motivated behavior seems unwise at best and possibly harmful, though the latter is strictly my opinion. What should and shouldn't be allowed to go into the mouth is highly dependent on size (not small enough to choke on), material (I wouldn't let my baby ...


8

I don't know if there's scientific evidence about developmental benefits but it's a certainly good bonding opportunity for you to do at home. I wouldn't take my baby to somebody else and pay them to massage my baby... this is not a burdensome chore or a highly skilled activity. Google "baby massage techniques"


8

I don't think there is a definitive answer for this question. The behavioral and development specialists at the children's hospital where my sons PCP is all agree that co-sleeping is bad and should only be allowed as an exception to comfort a child on stormy nights or after other upsetting events. Their arguments are that it prevents children from ...


8

As I'm sure your OT and SLP have told you, there's a lot of natural variability in when kids hit language milestones, and late language emergence is not always cause for concern. Your child --- with no expressive vocabulary at all at 3 years --- is an unusual case, though, which means it's hard to calculate statistics on trajectories for children with his ...


7

The National Institute on Drug Abuse has the following information about marijuana and the brain: Marijuana use impairs a person's ability to form new memories and to shift focus. THC also disrupts coordination and balance by binding to receptors in the cerebellum and the basal ganglia. According to the website, the jury is still out as to exactly how ...


7

Are kids with daycare background antisocial? I'll assume you mean Are kids with daycare background measurably more antisocial than their non-daycare peers? There are several studies which point in that direction, though it also seems that the negative effects are not very pronounced, they are not evident in all child care centers (in fact, results are ...


7

The other answer gave really good research background into this, but please keep in mind something when reading this research: The sample set is often small (a few daycare/children surveyed)... For example, the "large scale UK study" that the other answer linked surveyed about 800 kids in 100 different daycares. Which sounds like a lot until you realize ...


6

The NSPCC (UK child protection charity) recommends that no-one under the age of 16 is used as a babysitter. If a person under the age of 16 is used as a babysitter the parents of the child, and not the babysitter, remain responsible for any harm that happens to the child. http://www.eastsussex.gov.uk/childrenandfamilies/childcare/default1.htm Here's an ...


6

I never read any books on sleep and we mostly did our own thing. My personal, unscientific observation is that babies are very different when it comes to sleep, and what works for one child will not work for others. Some parents read a book and works perfect for their kids, and then if it doesn't work for their friend's kid are convinced they are 'doing it ...


6

Recent studies recommend a heating temperature of no more than 37C (98.6F) as fat content, free fatty acid concentration, and total antioxidant capacity were significantly lower at higher temperatures. This study also recommended thawing in the refrigerator rather than microwave. The trick is only heating it to normal body temperature (less is fine, too). ...


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