I am looking for educational collectible cards. That is, physically similar to baseball cards but consisting of educational content such as famous cultural figures or bite-sized scientific phenomenon, etc. What kinds of product could I use for this purpose?
I would suggest you look at either playing cards or at a bookstore for educational flashcards.
Playing cards are not uncommon to have something like what you’re saying, especially in tourist areas they will have playing cards with the local whatever on them. There are other similar cards for animals or plants. We have penguin playing cards with facts about penguins for example.
Educational flashcards will generally be less collectible in intent, but still could be used that way. Those are usually easy to find at larger bookstores.
Try Top Trumps cards. There are packs on dinosaurs, predators, history, etc.