I also had parents that enforced curfew and rules on me past the time that it would normally be expected (until I completed college), and the thing that helped most was proving that I had moved past the need for external rules. Moving past the need for rules doesn't mean "too old to be expected to obey", but "able to know what the right thing is and do it under my own motivation (and willing to take responsibility for the outcome if I choose wrong)".
It is somewhat true that the only way to learn is to have the freedom to fail, but you definitely have wiggle room to show that you can be responsible within the current situation. For example, when your parents say "you can be moody if you don't sleep enough", that could be a nice way of saying, "being around you can be unpleasant for me when you don't sleep enough".
Prove them wrong. When you are in a bad mood and tired, don't take it out on them. Deal with it in a healthy, adult way. Take a nap or a walk, do some deep breathing, go to bed early, whatever works for you. Accept that your mood is your problem and the result of your choice, and that feeling not-great is not a reason or excuse for being snappy or prickly towards others.
Easier said than done, but very much the least-conflict and most effective way forward in my experience. If taking moods out on others is standard in your family, you may actually need to do even better than your parents.
The same principle applies to any rule that you have outgrown. For example, if your parents have a set chore schedule for you and that feels too childish, take initiative to participate in household work and maintenance in a more adult way- without being asked, and when you notice something needs done.
Try your best to act as the adult you want to be, the adult others will want to be when they grow up. Not only will you prove that you don't need to be treated as a child, this is a challenge that can be highly personally satisfying and generally improve your life.
If you've done this for a while and it doesn't seem like things are changing in your favor, you at the least have good material for a calm conversation where you remind them that at this point you've clearly outgrown these rules, and examples you can point to that prove you already act more responsibly than the minimum the rules are meant to enforce.