Evidence seems to suggest a genetic component in both aggressiveness and access to self control. So that would suggest no.
I don't have a reference at hand, but I know Steven Pinker argues in The Blank Slate that in the nature / nurture divide, parents provide almost only nature, and that influence from environment stem largely from age-matched peers.
In the context of parenting however, I think the idea of parents shaping our children is missing the point, and I'd rather see our role as guiding them. Don't think of giving your child certain characteristics (since you may have no control over that), think rather of giving them certain tools. To that end, I would say that whether temper is innate or not, all children have tantrums and they all need to develop their own methods for dealing with that.
I believe our tendency to rush to address the issue that the tantrum is over is detrimental to that goal. Nor do children need to be informed that what they're crying about isn't worth crying about. In my experience, you help a child build grit and the ability to work through their own issues if you stay with them during their upset, and validate their feelings. I believe a child feels safe when they feel that all feelings are allowed, and that children who feel safe will be more successful, all other things being equal, in dealing with adversity.