Not a full answer with citable things, but it is too long for a comment, so here is half an answer:
Going from the signs of authoritarian parents from your source:
- Have strict rules and expectations: Strict rules mean: no own decision-making. Strict expectations means a lot of feedback on mistakes made, and therefore to focusing on those. Also, the parents set the rules, so, how are you supposed to learn how to make your own?
- Very demanding, but not responsive: The child works a LOT to meet the expectations, but will fail occasionally. Again, failure is the focus, and almost no support is given for dealing with the bad feelings coming from this.
- Don't express much warmth or nurturing: The parents seem distant and uncaring to the child. And when even the parents don't seem to care, how will anyone ever care for you? If even your parents don't care about your feelings, why should you?
- Utilize punishments with little or no explanation: The child is punished totally randomly, from the child's perspective. So, the child learns that the most important person in their life will randomly lash out at them. Also, the child has no chance to understand what it did wrong. How is a child to learn what a right decision is, and ever have any confidence in choices made?
- Don't give children choices or options: You only get good at making decisions by practising. By getting better, you gain confidence to make them. If you never get to make any as a child, when will you learn?
So: when your parents make all the decisions for you, how are you supposed to have confidence in YOURS? You never made any! If your parents never taught you that mistakes and failures happen, how are you supposed to learn that, and, more importantly, how to a) deal with them properly and then b) move on, possibly hurt, but a bit wiser, and warned for the next time you encounter something similar?
Learning those skills when a wrong decision does not mean "I will walks home in wet clothes" but "I will loose my job"? Of course it will make the world a frightening place... one through which you cannot travel sure of yourself!
And self-discipline? You never disciplined yourself before, your parents did. Again.. no practice.
That is my take on this, at least, hope it helps :).
My view on low self-esteem:
It is hard to get a good self-esteem if you mostly hear that you did something wrong, that what you did was not good enough, that you should do more, which is something authoritarian parents tend to do. Learning to see value in what you did, even if it is NOT perfect (That table does not look perfect, but I built it MYSELF, for example) is something you start learning as a child, as well.
When you start learning an instrument, you will start out sounding terrible. But you get better... that is AMAZING, and WONDERFUL. Unless, of course, you are only told "You STILL get the last bit wrong!". Then, you don't get to feel great about the thing you did... only bad about the thing you did NOT.
Self-esteem comes, at least in big parts, from knowing you are good enough even when you are not perfect. From knowing you do not need to be perfect. You got better... so you feel good. You are not getting better any more? Well, that's ok, we all have a limit. And look: you started out with zero skill. Now you have some! It is THAT kind of thinking that was not learned in childhood... and now needs to be found, to get the self-esteem up. And that, again, is hard, if all you learned was the opposite.