It sounds like your mom and you need to work on your communication skills, together. This isn't uncommon in the teenage years; you're basically an adult now after all, and it's hard for both of you to work out exactly what that means for your relationship.
One of the common issues you have in a relationship like this is escalation. When you were five or six, escalation didn't do much, because you're half your parents size; but now, you're probably nearly as big or bigger than your parents, particularly your mom, and it's much easier to get into escalating fights where both of you escalate issues.
Your mom is probably stressed out about driving with you, because you're probably not a very good driver (and I don't say that to be mean: you're 17 and have been driving for a year and a half, it's nearly impossible for you to be an actually good driver with that little experience.) You make little mistakes, and it worries her, even if they don't have significant consequences, or even are the right thing to do given the circumstances. This is like me driving with my wife: it took me ten years to be able to do so without either criticizing her driving or sitting in the passenger seat with a frightened look on my face most of the time. She's a fairly good driver, but she didn't make the choices I would make in many instances, and that lack of control stressed me out for a long time. Being out of control, but responsible, is frightening and extremely stressful.
You're also very stressed, and for good reason; you're being micromanaged, and clearly not trusted. You're doing something that is stressful - driving - and being interrupted and second guessed the whole time. What your mom is doing could cause you to have an accident or make an accident more serious. You also respect your mom's opinions (to some extent at least), and having her tell you you're doing it wrong constantly is frustrating. And on top of all of this, you don't seem to have the ability to extract yourself from the situation if you wanted to, because she requires that you drive - taking away the only element of control that you do have.
The key to dealing with escalation is stopping for a time-out, so both of you can cool off. Get out of the stressful situation. Then, try to de-escalate and defuse the situation. Don't accuse or yell; just tell your mom that you need to pull over so you can calm down and get to a place where you can be safe.
Then tell her how you feel, right then. Don't use things like "You ALWAYS" or "You make me so mad"; be very specific, about exactly what behaviors of hers were frustrating.
Mom, when you yelled at me that I could have gotten us killed, it hurt my feelings. I know I'm not a perfect driver, and sometimes I don't do exactly the right thing, but I'm doing my best, and I need constructive feedback to get better. Yelling at me makes an already stressful situation worse, and could cause us to get into an accident.
I want to get better as a driver, and appreciate that you're trying to help me get better. If you don't feel like I'm good enough of a driver to be in situations like this without micromanaging, can we consider only having me drive in less dangerous situations until you feel more comfortable with my driving?
This particular situation was complicated, since it involved a highway and merging across three lanes of traffic. Maybe next time we should try driving a different route that would help avoid this?
In this particular situation, it was stressful because I didn't have enough time to plan my turn when you told me I needed to turn. Can we perhaps discuss the route in detail next time - possibly with a smartphone or map that can help me understand the turns I need to make? That way I'm not surprised by a sudden route change.
You also should try and work on your communication at the time with her. This is something my wife and I worked on effectively. She is not very good at navigating new routes, and so I'm often the navigator. Sometimes I'm not a very good navigator, so I'll tell her to turn at a point where it's not safe in her mind (just like your mom, it sounds). For a while this would stress both of us out, but now, if I tell her too late to turn somewhere, she tells me "Okay, I can't make that turn, but I'll turn at the next street and backtrack. Will that work?". Then I'll verify (if needed) that it is possible (no one way or dead end streets blocking us), and reroute if needed further.
It's not always going to be possible for you to improve your communication - either because you're communicating as effectively as possible in the situation, or it's too stressful to think about it at the time. That's fine; just keep it in mind, and do what you can.
Finally, you definitely need to have a talk about this away from the car, when you're not in a stressful situation. I would have all three of you in the room (dad, mom, you), and come up with a list of behaviors that cause you difficulty, and a list of constructive suggestions to solve them. Just like above, keep it non-accusatory and non-combatitive; you want your mom to be on board here, not to get defensive. Starting with "Mom, I hate driving with you", or "Mom, you're a terrible passenger", probably won't be helpful; instead, start with:
Mom, I think we need to work out how to improve our relationship when it comes to my driving. It's often very stressful to me, and I'm sure it is also stressful to you, when I drive with you. I'd like to give you some examples of what you do that frustrates me, and also talk about what I do that frustrates you, and then come up with some solutions that will work for both of us.
You may or may not want to talk to your dad ahead of time; the problem with automatically doing so is that it may feel to your mom that you're ganging up on her if you do. This will depend on your relationship. Tell her in this meeting, among other things, that you may need to stop driving sometimes and pull over and talk about things if the stress becomes dangerous or unmanageable for you - that way she's not surprised when you do it; and point out that it's not one sided. You're not stopping because you're mad at her, you're stopping because the stress on both of you is dangerous for both of you, and regardless of fault you need to stop, calm down, and help address it.
Try to be open about what she tells you, as well; and if she needs some time to think about it, give it to her - I'm sure you'd spend some time preparing for talking to her, make sure she can have some time also if she needs it.
At the end of the day, realize that it will probably never be perfect. Driving as a passenger in a car when you're also a capable driver is very stressful for some people (like me), no matter what. What you'll want to do is find solutions that help you and your mom deal with the problems when they occur, not try to prevent every possible problem every time. Create a framework that you agree on of how you handle situations. At what point are you going to pull over. At what point should you switch drivers. What code phrase can you use to let your mom know that she's stressing you out, so that she remembers this conversation and doesn't think you're just rebelling. Giving yourselves the tools to handle the stress is critical - now and later in life - for handling conflict.