Is there a list of emotions with an age range that is appropriate to teach kids? I would like to put the list on the fridge so that we (the parents) are reminded to use these words.
In my youth, I was exposed to emotion charts. The earliest this occurred, for me, was 9 years old. However, there are simpler and more age-appropriate charts available for younger children.
The two charts below are the exact same ones I saw countless times when I was younger. In fact, I had a French version of the second one (How are you feeling today?) on a T-shirt because I took French classes in high school.
Other resources exist, such as How to Make and Use a Feelings Chart and Enhancing Emotional Vocabulary in Young Children (PDF). That second link is primarily focused on 3-5 year olds and has a list of over 60 emotions or "feeling words". This suggests that young children are capable of being taught a wide array of emotions, feelings, or moods. However, some of them may be hard to depict using charts.
I would suggest reading the article linked. The article is a "module" from training resources available from The Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations of Early Learning. They have many other materials geared for infants to Pre-K toddlers (which is still in the 3-5 age range as above). They have their own feelings charts that usually only include about 10 more basic emotions, but they don't seem to suggest teaching only those emotions.
If these strategies have been found to be effective for such young children, then one could presume that more extensive charts and emotional vocabularies would be suitable for older children.
If you search for "How are you feeling today?" on a site like Amazon you can even find pre-made poster charts, such as the laminated kind that have great durability.
The basic structure of SDG*Chart of Emotions has been used in Finland teaching emotions for pupils on the fourth grade aging about 10 years. It is compiled out of 8 emotion scales and has 25 basic emotions.
The larger chart consists of 121 emotions and could be useful for the parents too. There are also practical emotional expressions below each emotion.