The answer, in short, is yes and no and it depends on the child & usage.
This pertains not only to children, but to all people. When we make a statement about a behavior or a characteristic and attribute that to the person, then if it is done so repeatedly, whether by the same person or separate people individually, there are 2 scenarios (generally-speaking);
The person will reflect on the statements or otherwise internalize them, begin believing them, and then adopt them as a component of self-identity.
In this case, negative statements can be quite harmful while positive statements can be quite helpful.
The person generally disregards the views of others or for whatever reason disregards a particular label.
In this case, it isn't harmful to the recipient, per se, but quite often will result in them creating a view of those who make such statements (very often as friend or foe). Most of the time I see this as taking place subconsciously as opposed to an overt decision.
When, however, in the case of behavior-related statements, they are made more precisely as describing the behavior, such concern is lessened, though not always eliminated since they may be heard differently than they are said (most especially when speaking about children).
Characteristics, though, are not as you have in your "positive example." That is, calling someone good is not the same as saying that their behavior is good. A good person is someone who replicates the desired behaviors consistently, not as the one-time event suggested by identifying a single positive behavior.
For many generations, both phraseologies have been used by people throughout various cultures and we don't see (or at least I have not) stories or news articles about bad people where the sole cause was that their parents called them something when they were a child, so I don't see this as a cataclysmic concern. It is one worth noting, however, (hence the +1) to help ensure we are the best parents we can be.