I sense a bit of overreaction here, and unbalanced behavior.
Please read to the end, and then decide what you will do with the information in this answer.
Your kid is probably a left or a right brainer (as 99% of the people are). Either his brain prefers to think logically, or his brain prefers to experience emotion and he behaves accordingly.
If he is more of the emotional side, you might bring him a bit more in balance by stimulating his analytical thinking. But that would require your emotional feedback. You will have to give him the feeling that what you are doing helps him to become more balanced. Otherwise he feels like what you are trying to teach him is less important than what he prefers: emotion. And that might even make him distant more from your perspective. Which is totally the opposite of your goal: prepare your children to function autonomously.
If he prefers logic more (like you do, so it seems), you are over stimulating him, bringing him further away from balance. Only a balanced mind gives best direction to its own life by setting the right goals.
I would strongly suggest you start 'listening' to your own feelings more, and become more balanced yourself. This balance is passed on to your children naturally. The opposite is true as well, if you are out of balance, you pass that on to your children as well.
An example of how to listen to your emotion could be like this:
How do I feel about all this, putting a topic on the net, asking for help to stimulate the logical problem solving of my kid? I would say that you feel some sort of stress, based on what you say: " really has me feeling an acute need for helping them in this regard."
Now if it feels like stress, why doing it? Now I am not asking for an answer that you can give within the blink of an eye. What is your profound motivation? I would say its regret: "I look back regretfully that I did not understand". And thats a negative emotion. Regret isn't constructive. Regret can make you grind to a stop (like in making progress in life). Now it probably isn't that much of a deal for you, it doesn't takes over your life. Now compare regret to motivation that comes from the emotion of love. You see the difference? So do you want to give your children direction based on regret?
End of edit 2
If I am correct, and you prefer logic more (you are a programmer so you don't deal much with emotion in your profession), you probably think: "What the ** is this for an answer, this is not what I am looking for".
Your logical side of the brain has to accept that the emotional side is worth 50% of the 100% available decision space to give your life direction. If you THINK otherwise (the logical analyses), you shut the door for the input of your own emotion, and even worse, you naturally, by your unconscious behavior, negate the emotional side of your children. Unconsciously, because this can never be a conscious choice of a well willing parent.
This might seem totally exaggerated, and that is exactly the viewpoint of an unbalanced brain. If you do not think this is exaggerated, than you are probably very open minded or you are in balance (enough) already.
Try to view the value of this answer from the two perspectives (logically and emotionally) as an exercise. If you can't, you have, by definition, a profound preference for either one of the perspectives.
What I like to mention is that I am a professional software developer myself, I have wife and two children.
Whatever you may think of this answer, I sure wish you the best.
You have used the phrase "so that it doesn't take them another 10-20 years to start seeing things in context.". Thats the focus of a mind that is not in the NOW. A balanced mind isn't busy with the past (regret puts your focus in the past), and isn't busy with future problems. A balanced mind experiences the moment of now with joy. Now I can almost be sure that you think "But you will have to look a head to guide things into the right direction". That is not true. Future problems do not exist, but become problems of the present moment instantly when you start thinking about them. A balanced mind that experiences joy in the moment of now will not run into problems as he makes the right decisions on the moment its necessary.
End of edit 3
I know I did not gave you an answer on the question where to find material to educate logic and problem solving to your children. That is, because I think your motivation is 'wrong'. If you would have stated it sort of like this, I would have tried to help:
My kid tends to get caught up in his feelings, not knowing a way out. His feelings in certain situations aren't what you call 'real' (as defined in reality). For example, when he has a problem, he doesn't know how to solve it. He tries to do other things to make him feel well again, but as long as he can't put it in perspective, he tends to stay stressed. I think he could be helped if he would be able to put his problems in perspective more and work towards a solution by analysis instead. What would be a good training to help him stimulate the logical problem solving more?