There are many social ills in any society. We are using a hypothetical society where most people are "thieves" as an easy example. We do not want to discuss the definition of thief. We want to discuss the skills needed for our children to survive in such a society.
closed as not a real question by Torben Gundtofte-Bruun♦ Jan 11 '12 at 9:50
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Same thing as you do in any society. Teach your your children the skills you feel you benefited from, and then your job is to them give a safe place to develop and question.
"Anyone can give them answers. They'll get plenty of answers in school. And then they'll be tested on those answers. What we give them is an environment where they can question safely. That's our task." - video link of two fathers discussing this kind of topic
In your "society of thieves", you obviously impart the raw skills they need to survive (just to provide a complete answer, I'm guessing a focus on Dexterity, and decent Bluff and Stealth checks), but far more importantly, you need to give them somewhere where they can question why things are done this way, and where they can develop their own worldview without worrying it will bring punishment.