It's well known that small children don't understand the concept of the future or passage of time, so there is no point in applying the punishment for too long of a period.
Obviously, that mental development limitation gets resolved as children grow older.
Is there a good guideline on what length of punishment (withdrawal of privileges, or of specific items) is effective at what ages?
Examples: withdrawal of a specific toy that the child likes to play with nearly daily. Or withdrawal of permission to watch TV.
Age bands of most interest are preschool, elementary school and middle schoold