The amperage on a USB socket is typically 0.5-1.0A on a PC, sometimes less (300mA is common for a low power device). High current USB chargers are usually 2.0-2.5A, for instance the Google Nexus 7 tablet charger and some new smartphone chargers, however most mobile phone chargers are 700-1000mA, for instance a Nokia 520/525 would be 750mA and a Samsung Galaxy Nexus charger is 1.0A. As user7316 says - well below the threshold (he calls it a line) for any damage, and shorting the current would require shorting between charger pins - inserting a screwdriver into the port wouldn't do it.
Nevertheless, Jax makes a decent point - childproofing is as much about making things like screwdrivers unavailable to children and watching their behaviour to prevent 'excursions' as it is removing places to stick them.
As TechieType says - it's a 5V design - not enough volts or amps to feel it unless you use your tongue. Whatever the current is on the wall plate, only needs covering if you think it is in any way possible for your child to use leverage on it to break the plastic (probably not a problem if it's a metal cover) and expose themselves to whatever voltage your house mains electricity is. Hopefully the breaker would go - having an electrician check these are actually working correctly might be a good idea, as doing things like using 10A 'fast trip' breakers instead of 20A 'slower' breakers may be advisable with kids. All these breakers essentially melt at different speeds depending on the thickness and material involved, and the current involved when the thing breaks, so ensuring they're working as designed can be the difference between a life-saving trip and a nasty accident.*
*mild hyperbole involved, but all true.